The Baltic countries, which experienced intensive outflow of labor during the first 5 years after joining the EU, also provide an interesting case for a study of the migration response to economic shocks. The behavior of Baltic migrants was different from that of their counterparts from other NMS. During the economic crisis of 2009–2010 and its aftermath, mobile citizens of other countries which joined EU in 2004 responded primarily to the worsening economic situation in old member state host countries: emigration slowed down, while return migration intensified.
Hazans M. (2016) Migration Experience of the Baltic Countries in the Context of Economic Crisis. In: Kahanec M., Zimmermann K. (eds) Labor Migration, EU Enlargement, and the Great Recession. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg